Does anyone ask for young people’s consent?


Hidden Pockets Collective recently conducted a workshop on consent for young people with Project Khel in Uttar Pradesh. It was conducted for children above the age of 10 years old to 17 years in different schools.

We asked the young people if they had ever talked about issue of consent with their friends, family and communities. There were lot of questions about right to say yes, right to no, and questions about how to convince a person.

They often had questions about who had a right to give consent, not everyone felt they had a right. Also for most of them, they felt like parents decided things for them.

Even though nobody explicitly mentioned about child marriages, young people did acknowledge the fact that a lot of young girls had to drop out of schools because of marriages.


Are young people there in the National Health Policy 2017?

Hidden Pockets Collective took part in Public Consultation held by Prayas and Human Right Law Network in Bhopal in 2017. This year the theme was around Legal interventions in Sexual and Reproductive Health.

Are young people there in the National Health Policy 2017? In order to answer this question, it is important to understand the definition of young people. According to the National Youth Policy 2014, young people in India, which is people in the age group of 15-29 years of age, comprise 27.5% of the population. At present, about 34% of India’s Gross National Income (GNI) is contributed by the youth, aged 15-29 years. Government of India spends about Rs.55,000 crores on non-targeted schemes including health designed for various demographic segments of which youth are also beneficiaries.

Considering the youth contribution to the national population and Gross National Income, it becomes pertinent to understand the National Health Policy from the perspective of young people.

Areas where young people have been mentioned in the National Health Policy

It is essential to understand that though the National Youth Policy acknowledges that 15-29 years of age is the age group of the youth, the National Health Policy nowhere specifically addresses the need of this particular age group although it mentions and includes adolescents with respect to several aspects. However, taking into consideration the different aspects that pertain to the youth, following may be seen as the areas that address the needs of the youth:

Objectives under Progressively achieve universal health coverage:

“Assuring availability of free, comprehensive primary health care services, for all aspects of reproductive, maternal, child and adolescent health and for the most prevalent communicable, non-communicable and occupational diseases in the population.”

Under Policy Thrust – Preventive and promotive health:

“an expansion of scope of interventions to include early detection and response to early childhood development delays and disability, adolescent and sexual health education, behavior change with respect to tobacco and alcohol use, screening, counseling for primary prevention and secondary prevention from common chronic illness –both communicable and non-communicable diseases.”

National Health programmes:

The policy gives special emphasis to the health challenges of adolescents and long term potential of investing in their health care.

“The scope of Reproductive and Sexual Health should be expanded to address issues like inadequate calorie intake, nutrition status and psychological problems interalia linked to misuse of technology, etc.”

However, this seems to only include youth between the age of 15-18 or 19.

In order to better understand the presence of youth in the National Health Policy, it becomes important to understand the policy in the light of the National Youth Policy, which was passed earlier in 2014.

Alignment between National Health Policy and National Youth Policy

Maternal health

National Health Policy 2017 and the National Youth Policy 2014, both address maternity health and the need to address the different aspects related to it for the mother and the newborn child.  It is progressive that the government acknowledges the need for expansion of reproductive and sexual health for adolescents and the need to address social determinants for maternal health. However, how it intends to implement these measures has to be seen especially with respect to National Health Policy.

Education on nutrition

Both the policy frameworks have acknowledged the need to educate the youth about the need for the education among Youth about nutrition and calorie intake

Sex education

The National Youth Policy notes the need to create “awareness about family planning, birth control, STDs, HIV/AIDS and substance abuse, especially in rural areas and (c) addressing issues concerning emotional and mental health (e.g. risk of depression and potential suicide attempts), esp. in case of adolescent youth.”

Addressing high risk groups for sexually transmitted diseases

“Enhanced capacity for detection and treatment of communicable diseases must be developed, especially for pregnant mothers and other high-risk groups.” – National Youth Policy 2014

While there are alignments with respect to several policies, there are several gaps between the policies and even otherwise. These gaps may have a far-reaching effect on the sexual and reproductive health of the youth.

Gaps between both policies and otherwise

Addressing sex ratio

Along with maternal health, the National Youth Policy also addresses the need to bring down female feticide to improve child sex ratio

“There is a need to pay special attention to health issues concerning women youth. This would entail greater pre-natal and post-natal care for women in vulnerable age group of 14-18 years, need to bring down maternal and infant mortality rates, campaign against female feticide to improve child sex ratio, etc.”

Marginalized and disadvantaged youth

The National Youth Policy 2014 acknowledges the need to support “a few segments of the youth population require special attention. These include economically backward youth, women, youth with disabilities, youth living in conflict affected regions including left wing extremism, and youth at risk due to substance abuse, human trafficking or hazardous working conditions.”

This is not the case with the National Health Policy. Except women as a group, the intersectionality of young people with other groups of people has not been dealt with in detail in the National Health Policy 2017. There seems to be a gap in understanding the impact of an individual being subject to multiple challenges due to the intersectionality.

For example: A person may be disabled, transgender and HIV positive


  •      Equity: Reducing inequity would mean affirmative action to reach the poorest. It would mean minimizing disparity on account of gender, poverty, caste, disability, other forms of social exclusion and geographical barriers. It would imply greater investments and financial protection for the poor who suffer the largest burden of disease.
  •      Health Status and Programme Impact: Establish regular tracking of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) Index as a measure of burden of disease and its trends by major categories by 2022.
  •      “Research on social determinants of health along with neglected health issues such as disability and transgender health will be promoted.”

Transgender violence:

  •      Unfortunately, both policies do not focus on the needs of sexual minorities going beyond the ambit of HIV/AIDS with focused interventions on the high risk communities like MSM (Men who have Sex with Men), Transgender, FSW (Female Sex workers), etc. and prioritized geographies for control of HIV/AIDS. It is worth noting though that the National Youth Policy was passed in January 2014 much before the NALSA judgment of 2014 that recognised transgenders as the third gender in the country.
  •      Gender violence also affects the transgender community, going beyond just women. However, the policy limits the scope to women.

Gender based violence:

  •      The section on Gender based violence notes that public hospitals need to be made women-friendly and the staff need orientation to gender sensitivity issues. It also states that healthcare to survivors and victims of gender based violence needs to be provided free and with dignity in the public and private sector.
  •      Gender violence also affects the transgender community, going beyond just women. However, the policy limits the scope to women.
  •      Even with respect to women, the policy does not qualify or define gender violence or gender sensitivity issues.

Universal Health Coverage and Right to Health

The 12th Plan seeks to extend the outreach of public health services for moving towards the goal of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) through National Health Mission. – National Youth Policy 2014

National Health Policy 2017 has reiterated the same. It advocates an “incremental assurance based approach”. The policy tries to understand Right to Health from two perspectives.

The policy mentions that the medical tribunal will also be responsible for resolution of disputes related healthcare and also the need for protection of patients including right to information, access to medical records, confidentiality, privacy, among others. Information related to health is of sensitive nature especially sexual and reproductive health. This could include details about HIV and AIDS patients, abortion data (both married and unmarried women), individuals affected by other STDs, among others. What happens if there is a data leak? The government recently admitted to Aadhaar data leak.  Several state governments including Madhya Pradesh have mandated linking Aadhaar to HIV treatment. News reports note a drop in registration at ART centres since the announcement of this integration.

Right to privacy was recently declared as a fundamental right. However, there is no law protecting the privacy of Indians. It is worth noting that the verdict on mandating Aadhaar is expected in November 2017.

The consultation was an excellent initiative to bring people working in the public health sector under one umbrella and discuss issues affecting various different communities. We shared our concerns regarding young people and their role in the public health sector.


Note : Brindaalakshmi had attended and presented on behalf of Hidden Pockets Collective.


Gender focussed Tech Solutions

Open Data Hack(ODH) Bangalore 2017 held on 14th & 15th of October, 2017 supported by RHoK India was part of the series of hackathons in India. Themes for Open Data Hack Bangalore 2017 were climate change, disaster warning systems and women health.

Hidden Pockets Collective participated as one of the organisations which provided a problem statement for the hackathon. We wanted engineering students to provide and look for tech solutions that would focus on issues around sexual and reproductive health.

Health is often the neglected issue which rarely gets any technology focussed especially if we are looking towards public health sector.

We also wanted more women engineers to come forward and take interest in our work and maybe encourage them to focus on tech solutions that would be more immediate and beneficial for them.

What happens when a gynaecologist, a poet and a man walk into the room?

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With four lovely performers and three speakers, Hidden Pockets and Krantikalli for #Sep28 campaign took this initiative to bring young people together and talk about Women’s Health and the City. The best part was that we had a gynecologist with us as a speaker. Dr. Suchitra is a medical officer for Family planning Association of India at the Delhi branch. Having a gynecologist among us made the audience very excited. The youngest in the crowd was a 16 years old performer.

The event was conducted at the Playground Creative House in Defense Colony, Delhi. The event started with two of the lovely performers reciting their poems. Brindalakshmi through her poems voiced the need for Red Lipstick, as if every women in the room was dying to put the red lipstick but was scared.  Anuradha recited her poetry in Hindi wherein she connected various different women and their struggles with health. Ankita spoke about body shaming and loving our own bodies while Amia brought a young adolescent’s anxieties into the room. The room was filled with an aura where we all had some questions to be answered. We all could connect with the poems, and we all connected with each other.

To the make the evening more interesting, we had our speakers next.  We had three speakers, Aisha from Hidden Pockets Collective, who mapped public health centers, and is a single women staying in a metropolitan city, went first. Second was Nitin, a man in a women’s meet, who spoke about how important it is to be a part of such discussions. As a partner, a brother and a friend, he wanted to be more engaged in these issues and be more sensitive to such issues. And third was the gynecologist, Dr. Suchitra.



The conversation was mostly focused on discussing public health centers and how difficult it is for women to access health centers, followed by sharing of experience on how it felt to visit Family Planning Association for the first time. Nitin shared his experience about visiting clinics and understanding how important it is to visit these centers with your partners.  And then we had the gynecologist talking about safe abortion, about how it is a women’s right to get a safe abortion and also about myths related to abortion.

Slowly the audience in the room started opening up. And then one by one we had the women asking questions. There was an excitement as well as seriousness in the room. Excitement because women were finally asking questions directly to a gynecologist and seriousness because all were paying attention to what the doctor was saying. The questions were related to periods, methods to contraception, pregnancy, safe abortion etc..

The audience also got to know about FPAI (Family Planning Association of India).  FPA India envisages sexual and reproductive health for all as a human right, including gender equality leading to alleviation of poverty, population stabilization and sustainable development. They have clinics around India such as in Delhi, Agra, Ahmadabad, Bangalore, Chennai, and Mumbai. We got to know how  FPAI follows ‘No Refusal Policy’ and also about how it gives importance to “after care” post having abortion and helps the person in understanding choices to contraception.

To sum up the beautiful evening, we had our performers recite their amazing poems. By the end a few still had questions, few looked content and while a few others were still in that fascinating aura.

Hidden Pockets Collective would like to thank out host partners @Krantikaali for helping us conduct this event in Delhi.

Pic credit: Riya Singh










Is space available to sexual minorities for sexual expression on social media?

While social media and sexual expression is usually viewed from a popular perspective, Hidden Pockets and Point of View decided to look at the same from a different lens; from the eyes of communities usually considered to be sexual minorities. Hidden Pockets and Point of View jointly hosted a panel on Social Media and Sexual Expression during Digital Citizen Summit 2017 on September 21, 2017. The speakers on the panel included Nadika – trans rights activist and writer, Smita Vanniyar – Point of View, Mahika – Feminism in India (FII), Jasmine Lovely George – Hidden Pockets, Nipun Malhotra – Nipman Foundation and Brindaalakshmi.K – Hidden Pockets. These speakers either represented or shared their expertise on different sexually marginalized communities like women, persons with different sexual orientations and gender (LGBTQIA) and persons with different disabilities.

The panel focused on understanding how inclusive social media platforms are towards these sexually marginalized communities. Exploring the challenges posed and solutions provided by social media platforms, the panel looked into the aspects of access, challenges and privacy in relation to the different communities.


  • With social media platforms looking to verify all profiles with identification documents, the LGBTQIA+ community faces the constant risk of their gender and sexual identities and orientation being revealed on these platforms.
  • The privacy of persons with disabilities is compromised when their disability is revealed through images shared or the community of people that they are connected to on the platform.


  • It was pointed out that social media primarily approaches content from a male gaze. This results in the censorship of certain categories of content on social media platforms. For instance: the body images of plus size women are filtered out while the body images of regular size women are pushed more on these platforms, thereby limiting the access to certain kinds of content on the platforms.
  • The LGBTQIA+ community faces the issue of their sexual or gender identity being revealed on social media by ex-partners or others who threaten them with extortion. Most cases of extortion go unrecorded due to the threat of IPC Sec 377. Victims gets threatens of images or videos being leaked. Unaware of their legal right against extortion, most give into these threats and pay the ransom demanded. It was noted that IPC Section 384 deals with punishment for extortion and IPC Section 388 deals with punishment for extortion using Sec 377.
  • Persons with disability find it hard to express their sexuality when their disability is visible on social media platforms.
  • Closed men-only Whatsapp groups perpetuating sexism and objectification of women, continue to exist. When asked if such women groups exist, the answer was no. Women-only groups exist. However the nature of these groups and the kind of content shared in these groups is very different from the men-only groups.

Though social media posses its own set of challenges, it’s advantages cannot be negated. Social platforms have also made Internet spaces more accessible for people from these communities to be open about their identity.


  • Access becomes a challenge for person with disabilities especially those with visual impairment. How inclusive are these platforms for a person with disabilities is questionable. That said, social media platforms have also given them access, opening doors to person with other kinds of disabilities where none existed before.
  • Social platforms gave members of the LGBTQIA+ community the space to be open about their sexual orientation and gender identity for the first time in their lives by allowing them to create anonymous profiles with a different name and profile photograph.
  • Social media platforms also allow for transgender persons to be present on these platforms without disclosing their gender identity. It allows for them to come out if and when they wish to.
  • Social media platforms also provides access to create secret groups in support of different groups of people with certain challenges like the LGBTQIA+ allowing them access to a support system

In conclusion, when asked what would be the one thing that should or shouldn’t change about social media, most panelists agreed that social media may have its flaws but social media has opened several doors. However, it might be useful if these platforms become safe spaces where individuals can be themselves without worrying about any of the above mentioned issues. The onus should shift from individuals onto the platforms, governments and the Internet to make them safe for users.

Logical Indian and Gender Talk

a group of people standing and posing for images for Mash Mixer

Hidden Pockets Collective was invited to be part of talk on #gendersensitization with The Logical Indian and MASH Project in Bangalore. It was wonderful to be able to discuss Gender and its complexities with a group of young people working in different set ups.

Jasmine giving talk for Logical Indian

We discussed about how spaces around us are gendered and how most of us negotiate these spaces and how some of us find it more difficult than the others!

Women’s Health and The City

When was the last time you ventured out in your city looking for health services? Where do you go? Whom do you talk to? Do you think your city reflect your tensions and worries?

Hidden-Pockets and KrantiKālī invite you to “Women’s Health And The City”. Come join us and let us seek answers for these questions. Come, share your stories with us.

Please register here to confirm your spot on the day of the event!

Who is this event for?
Young Women (Health Seekers) : We want their personal stories, stories related to how do they navigate their city, are they comfortable navigating the city. Have they ever visited public health centres? Are they comfortable navigating public health hospitals? Any personal experience on accessing public healthcare services. Why was it good or bad?

Young Men : It would be awesome to have 1-2 men on the panel who can talk about their experiences. If they have any personal stories where they faced problems while meeting the doctors along with their partners.

You can even participate as:
Speakers: So we are looking for 3 kinds of speakers – Health seeker (women), Health service providers and men (their experiences)

Health service provider: Personal stories on how is it to interact with women who visit the clinic. Do single women come? What are the major reasons for them to come to the clinic. Basically the experience of the doctor.

Poets: Poems on women navigating city (Feelings she goes throw),
Seeing the city from a woman’s eye
A woman’s relationship with her body
Anything that connects woman, her body, her health and city

Cost: Free

Age: 18 and above

Gender: Any

For further details and clarifications please feel free to send in a fb message.

*Feminist Fist Bump*

Gender and Internet Spaces

Hidden Pockets Collective invited to be on panel speaking about Gender and Internet Spaces at Jyoti Niwas College Mediatron Festival in 2017.

Some of the noted names from different mediums were present at the panel. We had Ganesh Raj, a famous Malayalam director who has been making award-winning movies. We had George Mathen whose graffiti has been creating some groundbreaking work in art spaces. We had Monica Das, senior journalist who had been working with The News Minute.

All the panelists confessed how internet had helped them reach a wider audience and how their work had been extremely influenced by the audience online.

Unleash Lab 2017, Denmark : SDGs

August 2017, Hidden Pockets got selected to be a part of Unleash Lab 2017 in Denmark. A nine days event where Unleash focused on 7 themes which are directly linked to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The themes were Food, Health, Water, Energy, Education, Sustainable Cities and Communities and Consumption and Production. So what was UNLEASH model ? UNLEASH brought 1000 talents together and converted their ideas into 200 business cases for sustainable development, collaborating with companies, academia and civil society.



Hidden Pockets represented Health. Talents under Health were further divided into sub themes; Access, Disability, Education, Mother and families and Mental health. Under Health we worked on access to Health. Under the sub themes we were asked to work with small groups on different topics related to access to health. Finally groups were created under access sub theme. Access to Finance, Early detection of Preeclampsia, Connecting the service providers and the Medicine suppliers. I worked on Maternal Deaths – Early detection of Preeclampsia. It was a great experience to work with people from different back grounds. The team had a mix of people from academia, a person from NGO, practitioner and a designer. My team members were

– Yvonne Mburu (Kenya), a scientist and healthcare consultant with over 10 years of experience in cancer immunology.
– Anne Vaandrager (Netherlands), a Design Activist. Her work is based on in-depth research that focuses on social shortcomings and inequalities in society.
– John Kigaru (Kenya), a Nurse Practitioner. He is the CEO and Co-founder of PregMum limited ,which has partnered with Strathmore University to develop Health-Tech solutions to improve early detection and response to obstetric emergencies at the grassroots level in Kenya.
– Olivia Curl (United States), founder of GIRLWITHABOOK Movement, a non-profit media organization that advocates for girls’ education and gender equality. She has worked in community-level reproductive healthcare and is particularly interested in the relationship between reproductive rights, education, and gender equality.

Pilot Project: 

The project is called SheTHRIVES. It a simple, effective screening tool to identify pregnant women at risk for eclampsia and pre-eclampsia. We selected Mukuru Slum in Nairobi, Kenya as a pilot case study for testing and initial implementation. The women in this area are at a great risk of maternal death from pre-eclampsia, due to a lack of preventative screening measures. So we created SheTHRIVES which is a 3-piece pre-eclampsia screening kit with digital blood pressure cuff, urine dipstick test, and simple digital interface which would be used by the community and student volunteers at the local church to detect early signs of pre-eclampsia among the pregnant women.

Unleash Lab 2017 was an amazing experience. We learnt how to work in a team, with people from different background, different culture, different style.
We learnt a lot about each others culture. We learnt how a particular idea might work in a particular region but might not work in a different region. We had to understand the culture of different regions and community. Unleash helped us in understanding the community better. It also helped many of us who are running our small startups to understand how a proposal is made, what is the investor looking for and what all to keep in mind while framing a proposal.

All the SDGs are interconnected to each other. One cannot work on one SGD by ignoring the other. All should be moving forward together. And that is what Unleash Lab 2017 taught us, “How to move together”.

Random Hacks of Kindness goes to the capital city of India

“In my personal opinion, presently there are honour killings, lynching etc happening in the country, the government is not taking any action against this. If there is a public forum where people can raise their voices against these issues, it could help. There is for online petitions. Similarly, it would be great to have a platform to know the public opinion on different issues from different parts of the country. We are looking for that kind of solution,” says Nidhiya.V.Raj, Team Random Hacks of Kindness (RHOK) Delhi speaking about the problem statement on governance put forth to the participants of RHOK Delhi.

Following its hackathons in Bangalore and Ranchi for 2017, Random Hacks of Kindness (RHOK), a social hackathon initiative by Microsoft, Google, Yahoo!, NASA and World Bank to solve civic issues, is organizing its first hackathon in Delhi on July 15 & 16, 2017. Being a hackathon with focus on social issues, the organisers have lined up a set of social issues that the participants will hack to solve. Delhi being the national capital of India, all shortlisted themes seem to reflect on issues pertaining to the city. The themes include environment, governance, human rights and digital inclusion.


Delhi’s alarming pollution rate will also be addressed as an issue during this hackathon. Participants can choose to design a solution measure the air quality of the space anyone is in. Apart from pollution, participants may also choose to work on waste management. The solution is not restricted to only being a mobile or web based application.

“There are several recordings in various research institutes but there is no collated data to know if people are in safe environment. Sourcing data from these research institutes, participants can develop a solution to enable people to know if the environment is safe, be it inside an office, outside offices, factory areas .” – Nidhiya.V.Raj

Human Rights

Three issues have been covered under human rights theme namely gender discrimination (women & children, LGBTQIA+ rights, men, sexual harassment), mental health and disability. There is no specific problem statement that is being framed for human rights. Participants can work on a solution to solve the issues faced by one of these three issues.

“How will the government know the public opinion apart from the surveys in which people aren’t even participating? The younger generation posts its opinion on social media but it has no impact. It is scattered across different social media but it is not heard by the right people. The idea is to look at building a platform to solve this problem,” – Nidhiya.V.Raj

Digital Inclusion

“Aadhaar falls under digital inclusion and human rights. Aadhaar is a breach of privacy and also human rights because you are making an ID to be responsible for them to get anything – pension, healthcare. It cannot be made mandatory. How does someone access these services when they don’t have an Aadhaar? How do we know this the best solution when we already have so many IDs especially when the registration process was so unprofessional? Breach of privacy has been found. How do we handle that? These are issues that people should be aware of,” explains Nidhiya.V.Raj

With this and other challenges of digital exclusion in mind, participants are expected to build a solution that addresses the issues of access to Internet at a cheaper cost without sacrificing the citizen’s rights. It should essentially be a solution that works on the principles of net neutrality. The problem statement for digital inclusion is creating a solution to tackle the problem of digital inclusion without compromising on data privacy.

What will be the accountability with 80% being students?

As ambitious as it sounds, one can’t help but question the accountability of any platform or solution built during such a hackathon. What is the scope for it to be executed and scaled?

“Nothing about the solution should be harmful. Technology is a double-edged sword. We will ensure that there is accountability regarding data privacy. To ensure that it is a responsible solution, we will guide them (participants) through the procedure. Everything needs to be taken care of including the legal aspect. We also have a lawyer participating at the hackathon as a speaker and mentor.” – Nidhiya.V.Raj

While Kritika Bhardwaj, lawyer from National law University will be the legal mentor; Rosana Ardila, Open Innovation at Mozilla, Trishul Goel Mozilla Tech Speaker; and Faye Tangdog, Mozilla Reps Mentor & Former Community Manager, Mozilla will be the technology mentors for the hackathon. Representatives from NGO partners, Goonj and We Mean to Clean, Priyanka Jain (Goonj) and Swati Bhalla (We Mean To Clean) will also be speaking at the hackathon and mentoring participants working on the theme of environment. Rohith Jyothish & Raghuram from Rethink Aadhar will also speak at the hackathon. Nipun Singhal of VP, Ericsson. Note that Ericsson India Global Services Pvt.Ltd is the title sponsor for the hackathon and 91 Springboard is the venue partner while Women Who Code and 91 Springboard are outreach partners. Headstart Foundation is an ecosystem partner for the hackathon.

As a rule, all solutions built during this hackathon are expected to be open source. In case participants decide not to further develop the solution built, open sourcing of the solution will enable anyone from around the world to take it forward. Though an initiative by Microsoft, Google, Yahoo, World Bank and NASA, the organizer notes that RHOK is not obliged to provide any solution to these organisations. RHOK community appears to be running the hackathon on its own. The companies do not have a direct influence on the way these hackathons function.

Out of 350 applicants, 100 of them were shortlisted, of which 80% are students. Unlike Bangalore and Ranchi editions of the RHOK, this edition’s main focus has been governance, human rights and digital inclusion. Will the participants (80% students) of the hackathon have the capability to build solutions for these governance challenges? Will this hackathon really have an impact on building robust solutions to tackle such serious issues? RHOK has a different approach to address this challenge. The team thinks that information in itself could be the solution.

“I’m more than happy to have 80% students because I want the younger generation to know what is going on especially with Aadhaar. It is good to target students because they should talk about it to their peers. It should be action on the ground. It should be the talk of the town. It should be grass-root level innovation. Besides we have made sure that there is someone to talk on their topic so that people can get the right direction (to work on the solution).” – Nidhiya.V.Raj